COAL MAFIA IN EASTERN INDIA
In India, major coal fields are located in state of west Bengal, Bihar and Orrisa. Raniganj, Jharia and Giridih as are having major coal mines. There are more than 800 coal mines in India. India occupies 3rd position in the world in the field of coal production. Raniganj coal belt is an important coalfield located in Damodar river valley. It is spreaded around 240-sq. km area. It contributes 30% of total coal production of the country. Coal is the pre – dominant primary commercial energy source in India. In India maximum coal is found in son, Damoder, Gowdavari & Wardha etc. These are situated in valley of river. Gondwana land parts contribute 98% parts of total coal, mainly two type coal are found bituminous & anthracite. Bituminous type coal has carbon quantity 75 to 80% & Anthracite coal has 80 to 90% of carbon quantity. Anthracite coal is good, bright, black colour, maximum temperature & low smoke quality & Bituminous is also called secondary coal, it is black, maximum temperature, low smoke & water parts contain 25 to 30%. Gondwana land’s coal found maximum in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Prdesh, Maharastra & Andhra Pradesh etc. state. According to Geo Survey of India (1 January 1992), total coal in India has been 1,96,022.90 million ton (in depth 1200 mt)). West Bengal state has 2512.4 billion ton total reserve coal. Total coal reserve up to 600 Mt depth is 35 billions tones, about 23 billion tones in West Bengal. The total extractable reserve of coal has been accessed as 8 billions tones, this includes 6 billion tones in West Bengal & 2 billion in Bihar.